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MÆDICA - a Journal of Clinical Medicine | Vol. 11, nr. 1, 2016
ISSN 1841-9038  |  e-ISSN 2069-6116
ISSN-L 1841-9038
CNCSIS - CMR - B+

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2016 WHO Clinical Molecular and Pathological Criteria for Classification and Staging of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) Caused by MPN Driver Mutations in the JAK2, MPL and CALR Genes in the Context of New 2016 WHO Classification: Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications

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ABSTRACT

The 2016 WHO-CMP classification proposal defines a broad spectrum of JAK2 V617F mutated MPN phenotypes: normocellular ET, hypercellular ET due to increased erythropoiesis (prodromal PV), hypercellular ET with megakaryocytic-granulocytic myeloproliferation and splenomegaly (EMGM or masked PV), erythrocythemic PV, early and overt classical PV, advanced PV with MF and post-PV MF. ET heterozygous for the JAK2 V617F mutation is associated with low JAK2 mutation load and normal life expectance. PV patients are hetero-homozygous versus homozygous for the JAK2 V617F mutation in their early versus advanced stages with increasing JAK2 mutation load from less than 50% to 100% and increase of MPN disease burden during life long follow-up in terms of symptomatic splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, bone marrow hypercellularity and secondary MF. Pretreatment bone marrow biopsy in prefibrotic MPNs is of diagnostic and prognostic importance. JAK2 exon 12 mutated MPN is a distinct benign early stage PV. CALR mutated hypercellular thrombocythemia show distinct PMGM bone marrow characteristics of clustered larged immature dysmorphic megakaryocytes with bulky (bulbous) hyperchromatic nuclei, which are not seen in JAK2 mutated ET and PV. MPL mutated normocellular thrombocythemia is featured by clustered giant megakaryocytes with hyperlobulated stag-horn-like nuclei without features of PV in blood and bone marrow. Myeloproliferative disease burden in each of the JAK2, CALR and MPL MPNs is best reflected by the degree of anemia, splenomegaly, mutation allele burden, bone marrow cellularity and myelofibrosis.

Keywords: Myeloproliferative neoplasms; Essential thrombocythemia; Polycythemia vera; Primary megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation; Myelofibrosis; JAK2V617F mutation; MPL515 mutation; Calreticulin mutation; JAK2 wild type; Bone marrow pathology

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