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Evaluation of Multidetector Computed Tomography in Haematuria
Aims and Objectives: (1) To study the role of multidetector computed tomography in patients with haematuria. (2) To correlate multidetector computed tomography findings with clinical outcome/laboratory findings/FNAC and/or operative findings (wherever performed).
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, M.M. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, from April 2014 to 2016. Fifty patients with complaint of haematuria, referred from various wards and outpatient departments of this institution, were included. Multidetector computed tomography was performed in ultrasonography positive cases, in symptomatic patients with negative ultrasonography scans and in those with suboptimal ultrasonography scans. The equipment used in our study was a HD 11 XE (Philips medical systems) ultrasound unit with convex and linear probes and a 128 slice Multidetector CT (Philips Ingenuity).
Results: Maximum number of patients (30%) in the 51-60 years age group with a male preponderance. The prevalence of malignancy in patients with haematuria in this study was 28% which included bladder urothelial carcinoma (18%), renal cell carcinoma (6%), UTUC (4%), prostatic carcinoma (2%) and one case of TCC which turned out to be non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma on histopathology. Calculi were more prevalent in the younger age group and overall constituted 20% of the causes of haematuria. Other causes of haematuria detected on multidetector computed tomography were pyelonephritis, renal trauma (grade V renal injury), bladder diverticulum, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cystitis.
Conclusion: Multidetector computed tomography by using its multiplanar and 3D capabilities is highly accurate and specific in detecting the causes of haematuria. It can demonstrate the exact site of involvement in very high percent of cases. In addition to haematuria, multidetector computed tomography can detect various associated and incidental findings which may not be suspected clinically.
Keywords: haematuria, tumours, ultrasonography, computed tomography.