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Unusual Entities of Appendix Mimicking Appendicitis Clinically – Emphasis on Diagnosis and Treatment
Background: Abdomen is considered a magic box or a Pandora box where you will get different, unexpected pathologies along with rare entities. Appendicitis is the commonest emergency in surgery which presents challenges to surgeons because of a myriad list of differential diagnosis including both medical and gynaecological pathologies. Preoperative imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and management.
Aims and objectives: To study the rare atypical anatomical and surgical presentations of appendix in patients with clinical features of appendicitis. We focus on the clinical features and the role of investigations for the radiological part and management.
Material and methods: This study was done in M.M. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, from November 2014 to July 2016. This was a retrospective study. We found 168 cases with the diagnosis of appendicitis, out of which 19 were with rare entities.
Results: Subjects of both genders were aged between 20 and 60 years. Out of 19, 15 were males and 4 females. Four patients were operated for inguinal hernia but incidentally we found appendix in the hernial sac termed as Amyand’s hernia. Another patient presented with obstruction and appendix was forming a band diagnosed as torsion of appendix. Two most interesting cases were diagnosed as appendicular neuralgia and relieved by appendectomy. Out of 19 cases, 7 cases were operated for appendicitis diagnosed as appendicolith. In all the cases appendectomy was done without encountering any complications. Symptom free patients were operated for appendicular neuralgia. No malignancy was found in mucocele appendix at follow up. There were no complications by the 6-month follow-up.
Conclusion: As we came across with different entities of appendix presented with appendicitis, patients should be investigated before proceeding for surgery. In our study, there were incidental findings for which surgeons were not aware of the diagnosis and even for the patient. In inguinal hernia, ultrasonography was not done, diagnosis being made on clinical basis. Clinical and radiological investigations play an important part in early diagnosis and management.
Keywords: appendix, perforation, inflammation, torsion, hernia, mucocele, neuralgia.