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Atrial Septal Defect Size and Rims on Transesophageal Echocardiogram
Background and aims: Rims and size of atrial septal defect (ASD) are crucial for the success of transcatheter ASD closure. The maximal diameter and dimensions of various rims of the ASD are essential for sizing and optimal placement of the device. We aimed to study the size and rims of ASD in our patients.
Methods: This was a prospective study that was done at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre. All patients aged over 18 and referred to a unit IV in the Department of Cardiology for ASD device closure were included in the study. The study duration was six months, from April to September 2018. The size and rims of ASD were evaluated by transesophageal echocardiogram.
Results: During the study, 173 patients underwent transesophageal echocardiogram. Most of them [122 (70.1%)] were women. Age ranged from 18 to 68 (mean, 35 years). The most common symptom was shortness of breath. Twenty-one (12.1%) patients were incidentally detected with ASDs. Sinus rhythm with right bundle branch block was present in 148 (85.5%) subjects. Right atrium and right ventricle were dilated in 162 (93.6%) patients. One patient had dextrocardia with situs inversus. More than half of all patients (54.9%) had mild tricuspid regurgitation. Mean tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient was 39.5±16.8 mm Hg. More than one ASD was present in 11 (6.3%) patients. ASD size ranged from 2 mm to 43 mm in 4-chamber view, 2 mm to 44 mm in short axis view, and 2 mm to 47 mm in bicaval view. The mean ASD size was 18.6±7.7 mm in 4-chamber view, 19.6±8.5 mm in short axis view, and 18.7±8.0 mm in bicaval view. In only 11 (6.4%) patients, all rims were present and not floppy, while in other 11 (6.4%) subjects all rims were present, but floppy. With the exception of aortic rim, all other rims were present and good in 55 (33.9%) patients, while in 45 (27.7%) patients, other rims were present but floppy.
Conclusion: Many ASD have absent, inadequate and floppy rims.
Keywords: tASD, ASD device closure, rims, transesophageal echocardiogram.