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Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome – Case report
Introduction: Typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a leading cause of community acquired acute kidney injury in infants and young children. It is defined as a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal insufficiency associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. In this case of HUS that we are going to present, hemolytic anemia and trombocitopenia were the major features, while renal involvement was less important.
Case report: We report the case of a one-year-old Caucasian girl, without significant medical history, who was found to have stool culture with positive enteropathogenic Escherichia coli after an episode of diarrhea. The particularity of this case is that, even if the patient had prodromal diarrhea, thrombocytopenia and anemia in evolution, and the clinical features were consistent with typical HUS diagnosis, other diagnoses were considered due to the lack of apparent renal dysfunction.
Conclusion: Our patient presented some, but not all, abnormalities seen in typical HUS, making it difficult to establish the final diagnosis. Providers must keep in mind to raise the suspicion of typical HUS diagnosis even when some symptoms are missing, in order to establish a correct diagnosis and initiate supportive care.
Keywords: minimal renal involvement, Escherichia coli O26, HUS differential diagnosis